6 Essential Rules for Persuasive Writing # 5 – Anticipate and address objections 發揮寫作說服力的六大準則之五:對相反論點的預測和應對

不管是自己選擇或教授指定,若要寫作論說式學術文章,必須先做好心理準備。你必須說明個人意見,選定觀點也很重要,結構與表達尤其攸關文章成敗。本專欄介紹六大關鍵準則,讓你寫作時發揮說服力,每項準則都會刊登在 TPS 粉絲專頁,並在最後集結於 TPS 學術電子報。
Whether by choice or assignment, when an argumentative academic paper is the task at hand, the writer must approach it with an appropriate mindset. Subjective values come into play. Point of view becomes important. Organization and presentation become even more critical to success. The elements of successful persuasive writing are explained in this series, “6 Essential Rules for Persuasive Writing.” Each of the rules will be presented on the TPS Fan page before being compiled.

Rule # 5 – Anticipate and address objections

Knowing your argument and solidly making and supporting it are absolutely essential to successful persuasive writing. A writer cannot persuade another of something if the writer doesn’t believe it himself or doesn’t provide good reasons for his belief. Yet it is almost as important to understand an opposing position and to be able to express it in the course of disputing it. This is known as “straw man” rhetoric and if handled deftly can serve to buttress the writer’s position.
了解並紮紮實實地支持你的論點,對於撰寫成功的論說文而言是不可或缺的。如果作者本人都不相信自己的說法,或者是無法提供好的理由來使人信服,這樣的寫作可無法說服他人。另一方面,對於寫作同樣重要的是能了解反方意見,並成功地在論證過程中提出反對意見。這就是「稻草人修辭」(straw man rhetoric),如果處理得當,能替作者的論點加分不少。

For example, if a writer’s position is that the sun rises in the east, he must acknowledge that some believe it rises in the west. He should state the opposing view without sarcasm or other pejorative language. To do otherwise is disrespectful and diminishes the writer’s own standing in the eyes of a reader. However, having given the alternate view, the writer then can pick it apart using whatever tools he has at his disposal—contrary evidence, witness testimony, scientific reports.

If the stature of an opposing argument is reduced this way, two goals are reached. First, the weakness of the opposing argument is exposed at the same time the strength of the writer’s position is highlighted. Two birds… one stone. Second, by anticipating and addressing objections, blowback is minimized. Opponents cannot effectively respond using rationale the writer has already addressed. They must come up with new arguments. That’s effective persuasive writing.


Posted at 2012-12-20 10:20:55

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