12 Recommendations to Help you Submit a Conventional and Acceptable Paper Tip 4: Organize and group the material and outline the paper 12個獲得學術認可的論文撰寫技巧之四:分類資料並勾勒論文大綱

The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not. Following is one of 12 recommendations to help you submit a conventional and acceptable paper.

Tip 4 – Organize and group the material and outline the paper

At this point, the author of an academic paper should have chosen a subject and thesis and thoroughly researched it. The author also should have determined what format is required for the paper by the assigning professor, and made certain that enough information has been gathered to satisfy citation requirements. Now it is time to create the structure of the paper.

An academic paper is built around the thesis. Every point made in the paper should support the argument voiced in the thesis. Every statement should be a brick in the argument’s foundation. Every assertion should, directly or indirectly, lead the reader to the conclusion summarized in the thesis. (Conversely, if a point has the potential to lead a reader astray, it should be discarded.)
論文是根據論點來架構內容,每一個論點背後皆需要有支持理論的證據,也就是說,每個引據、每個證明,就像是磚塊需一層層堆砌起來,才能穩固論點存在的基礎。每一項研究主張都應該以直接或間接的方式,逐步、清楚的引導讀者進入論文總結 (相反的,若是論點的發展將可能誤導讀者、迷失論文重點,作者就應當機立斷,捨棄這個方向)。

The collected material should be organized, a process that probably began during the collection stage. The material should be arranged by function—for example, introductory material near the top of the list. It also should be grouped according to sub-topic or supporting evidence. This grouping process will reveal any areas of argumentation that are weak and need more research.

Next comes the outlining of the paper. While the grouped material might suggest an outline, a set of facts can be employed in more than one way. A paper on Copernicus, for example, might chronologically relate his solar system studies, or it might juxtapose his various discoveries with the misconceptions of his peers. Facts are not malleable, but they are moveable.

A professor may suggest a structure for a paper, but usually only in general terms. The content of the paper, as a result of research, ultimately decides the most effective structure. This might be a narrative approach. Or it could be a side-by-side comparison, or a sequential presentation of evidence. In every case, the goal is to assemble the facts into a convincing final argument.

Before writing begins, purposefully evaluate the chosen outline. Ask questions. Does it function convincingly? Does it stay on course in support of the thesis? Is it logical and comprehendible? Does it sail from introduction to conclusion without running aground somewhere? Can it be strengthened by alteration, or addition? Be sure. The outline becomes the blueprint for the paper.
在撰寫論文之前,仔細檢視確定好的綱要,好好回答下列的問題:這樣的內容鋪陳具有說服力嗎? 這些論據有成功的佐證論點嗎? 內容符合邏輯且容易瞭解嗎? 從介紹到結論的閱讀過程中,有正確引導讀者、不使讀者迷失困惑嗎? 論文是否還有再加強或再修改的空間與必要? 一定要確實檢視上列問題。 別忘了,綱要是論文寫作成功的重要藍圖。

Posted at 2012-04-06 10:58:12

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